The earliest form of the computer is thought to be the mechanical calculator invented by Wilhelm Schickard in 1623, which was capable of doing simple arithmetic. But the honor of developing the first computer goes to John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert. Known as ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator), this giant machine, invented in 1946, was made of about 18,000 vacuum tubes and took up 1,800 square feet of floor space. Since then, it has been a long and exciting journey for the computer. Today, it is an integral part of life for a vast population of people across the world.
Computers have simplified life for mankind in numerous ways. They feature prominently in every aspect of everyday life—home, work, travel, school, and play. At home, computers are used to co-ordinate security systems, appliances, and electronic gadgets. They help businesses function more efficiently and increase productivity. Students now have greater access to research material and computer games are a must for young and old alike.
The advent of the internet heralded the beginning of a new era in computing. Suddenly, the world became a much smaller yet more connected place. Creativity spread its wings and spectacular innovations have become the norm. Computer science is a sought after discipline in college, and job opportunities are aplenty for those who excel at it.
The following are some resources that give more information on computer science:
- Basic Guide to the Internet: This provides a comprehensive overview of the World Wide Web. It discusses links, web protocols, URL, RSS, multimedia, and programming. There are also links to various search engines, search tools, and information on how to cull out the required content.
- Web Searching Tutorial: Links to a tutorial with material from web searching workshops. It contains information on search strategy, methods of evaluation of web pages, style sheets used for citing resources, and a glossary of internet jargon and popularly used terms.
- Learn the Net: Is a detailed guide to surfing the web, managing and using e-mail accounts, accessing social networking sites and utilizing them to serve personal interests, online publishing, setting up an e-business, seeking information online, downloading data, and maintaining privacy and safety while doing all these activities.
- Living Internet: A detailed reference to the evolution of the internet, it also contains the history of the internet and explains how the internet works. This is an informative resource about tips on netiquette, the different types of internet usage, internet management, tools and resources, internet security, and hackers and viruses. It also leads to numerous useful internet resources, statistics, terminology, and other reference sites.
- Webopedia: A compendium of questions and terms related to computers, the internet and network technology and security.
Women and Computing
- The ADA Project: A resource for women in computing. It has information on women’s organizations in the field of computing, a list of programs and projects for women in IT, job opportunities, and a chronological listing of women in computing.
- Association for Women in Computing: It serves the purpose of helping women in the computing profession establish professional networks, pursue higher education, and participate in mentoring programs.
- Computer Science’s Gender Gap: An interview with social scientist and scholar Jane Margolis who is also the co-author of Unlocking the Clubhouse: Women in Computing. She speaks of her research findings about why the number of women pursuing an education is computer science is so low.
- WIGSAT: Women, Technology, Society: This is the website of a consulting group specializing in the involvement of women in innovation, science, and technology. It provides updates on various forums and related events.
- Women in Technology International (WITI): An organization that hosts various events for women in the field of technology. It has options for membership and contains informative articles, hosts webinars, network events, and lists career opportunities.
- Netiquette: The web version of the book Netiquette by Virginia Shea. It outlines the etiquette to be followed when online such as in e-mail communications, participation in discussion groups, and during information retrieval.
- Ten Core Rules of Netiquette: Defines netiquette and lists the basic rules to be followed. There are also references to the online social code and formation of cyber words.
- Netmanners: A blog on how to handle netiquette issues such as responding to rude e-mails, e-mail attachments, and sending e-mails to multiple recipients.
- Introduction to Network Etiquette: It has guidelines to keep in mind while composing e-mails and suggestions on how to project oneself in electronic communications.
- The Code of Conduct for the Internet: List of core rules for the internet, which can help prevent problems and misunderstandings in the virtual world.
- Computer Crimes: The website of the Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section of the United States Department of Justice provides news and information about developments in the field of cyber security. It also has guidelines for reporting a cybercrime.
- Cyber Criminals Most Wanted: Provides details about various internet scams from across the globe. There are articles on cybercrime detection and prevention as well as safeguarding online privacy.
- Computer Crime Research Center: This links to information on different types of cybercrimes including dating scams and malicious virus attacks as well as legislation formed to tackle the menace.
- Internet Crime Complaint Center: The website is a joint effort by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the National White Collar Crime Center (NW3C). Victims of cybercrimes can file complaints on this site and learn more about internet crime prevention.
- Cybercrime Law: The different aspects of cybercrime law and technicalities are discussed. New developments in the field are analyzed and ongoing court cases are also featured.
- Peace, Justice, And Security in Cyberspace: It advocates a common global treaty on cybercrime and features papers on various related topics.
- Copyright: The website of the United States Copyright Office contains detailed information about copyright laws, records, policy, licensing, and other related issues.
- Computer Security Resource Center: An initiative of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, this website contains news about developments in internet security. It links to interest groups and publications on the subject.
- Digital Age Fraud: Contains details of credit card frauds committed online. It gives advice, statistics, and has a victim registry set in place.
- Clipart: A website which offers clipart images, illustrations, and photos for downloading through subscription plans.
- Color Charts: Lists hexadecimal and HTML named colors.
- Web Design References: A compilation of useful references to assist in web designing. It includes style sheets, structures, tools, zoom layouts, language, books, Dreamweaver tutorials, navigation and labeling, information architecture, and web standards among others.
- HTML Goodies: An HTML resource with news about HTML development and guidance articles.
- Web Style Guide: The online version of the third edition of the Web Style Guide: Basic Design Principles for Creating Web Sites, authored by Patrick I. Lynch and Sarah Horton.
Programming Languages and Scripts
- CProgramming: A comprehensive resource for C and C+ + programming. It offers guidance for learning the language, offers practice quizzes and problems, references, and tips from experienced programmers.
- The Complete C+ + Guide: This website outlines the history of C+ + language, gives its description, offers tutorials, library reference, and message boards for active discussions.
- CPAN: The website of the Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN) has many Perl modules written by thousands of authors. The Perl resources include installation of modules, Perl documentation, FAQs, scripts, and mailing lists.
- FORTRAN 77 Reference: A resource guide to one of the earliest computer programming languages. Chapters deal with program layout, arrays, operations, different control structures, intrinsic functions, and statement functions.
- Internet Quarantine: This paper on the website of the Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis (CAIDA) addresses the requirements for containing self-propagating code.
- Koders.com: A website to help search through hundreds of thousands of lines of open source code.
- The Linux Documentation Project (TLDP): This site aims at distributing free GNU/Linux documentation which can be easily found and used.
- Help With Linux: A self-help forum with numerous resources on Linux.
- Network World: An open source website filled with news, articles by people in the industry, and informative podcasts.
- Molecular Science Computing: The U.S. department of Energy initiative which aims at setting up an integrated production computing environment.
- The Art of Scientific Computing: The website of the Numerical Recipes series of books on scientific computing. It also offers downloadable code products and online versions of the books.
- Programmers Heaven: A collection of computing articles and blogs on gadgets and web scale software.
- UNIX Help for Users: A good guide for those using the UNIX operating system. It has instructions on getting started, using commands, and concepts.
- AgentWeb: Links to varied resources about agents and related items.
- XML From the Inside Out: News from the world of XML and other helpful information.
- Ada Information Clearinghouse: A host of information about the Ada programming language including related articles.
- C# Station: Offers guidance to those who use .NET through C# programming language. The site is maintained by a published author named Joe Mayo.
- Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming Using C+ +: An exhaustive paper on programming techniques, modular programming issues, object-oriented concepts, polymorphism, and writing programs.
- Introduction to Programming Using Java: The sixth edition of Introduction to Programming Using Java, a free online textbook. The target audience is programmers who are just starting off.
- The Java/XML Tutorial: Provides a link to an online manual to assist in XML code and other related applications.